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History of 30th June – The Santhal Hool

History of 30th June – The Santhal Hool

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30th June

This episode provides historical information about the Santhal Rebellion, a significant tribal uprising against British colonial rule in India that took place in the history of 30th June 1855. It highlights the grievances of the Santhal community, their resistance against oppressive policies, and the lasting impact of the rebellion on India’s anti-colonial struggles and indigenous rights movements.

As I read the history of 30th June, I find that Frantiska Palminkova the Czech feminist and suffrage activist was both born and died on this day in the year 1942. This was also the day when Gandhi was arrested for the first time in South Africa in the year 1914. This was also the day when the infamous Boundary Commission declared the boundaries for the partition of Bengal and Punjab. Moreover, it was this day in the year 2005 when Spain legalized same-sex marriage. Many such incidents occurred on the 30th of June, but what I have chosen today is the first major organized rebellion against the British Raj which I share as my first story from the history of 30th June.

The Santhal Rebellion

It is often believed that the revolt of 1857 was the first struggle for independence. But what I share today is another revolt that is less sung off in present times but is the first major resistance that the British faced in India. I present the Santhal Hool from the history of 30th June 1855.

The Santhal Rebellion, also known as the Santhal Hool, was a significant tribal uprising that took place on 30th June 1855 in present-day Jharkhand, Bihar, and West Bengal India. It was one of the most important indigenous movements against British colonial rule during the 19th century.

The Santhals are an indigenous tribal community that primarily inhabit the region of present-day Jharkhand, West Bengal, and Bihar. They had a long history of marginalization and exploitation at the hands of local landlords and moneylenders. The British East India Company, which had established its dominion over large parts of India, further exacerbated their grievances through oppressive policies and land revenue systems.

The immediate trigger for the rebellion was the introduction of the new “Dwip” system by the British administration. Under this system, the Santhals were subjected to exorbitant taxes and forced labor, causing immense hardships for the already impoverished community. The Santhals, under the leadership of Sidhu, Kanhu, Chand, and Bhairav decided to rise against these injustices and fight for their rights and autonomy.

On the night of 30th June 1855, thousands of Santhals armed with traditional weapons launched a coordinated attack on the British authorities, local landlords, and moneylenders. They attacked police stations, revenue offices, and symbols of British authority. The rebellion quickly spread across different Santhal regions, gaining support from other oppressed tribal communities as well.

The Santhals demonstrated remarkable strategic planning and organization during the rebellion. They established a rudimentary administrative structure, appointed leaders, and developed a system of communication using drum beats, enabling them to coordinate their actions effectively.

The British initially underestimated the scale and intensity of the rebellion, but they soon realized the gravity of the situation. They deployed military forces and initiated a brutal counterinsurgency campaign. The conflict lasted for several months, with both sides suffering heavy casualties. The Santhals fought valiantly but ultimately succumbed to the superior firepower and resources of the British forces.

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The repercussions of the Santhal Rebellion were far-reaching. It exposed the oppressive nature of British colonial rule and brought attention to the plight of marginalized indigenous communities in India. The rebellion also inspired other anti-colonial movements and contributed to the formation of a broader nationalist sentiment against British rule in the country.

Despite their defeat, the Santhal Rebellion left a lasting impact on the struggle for indigenous rights and autonomy. It highlighted the need for land reforms, social justice, and inclusive governance, which became key demands of various indigenous movements in the subsequent decades.

The Santhal Rebellion stands as a testament to the indomitable spirit and resilience of the Santhal community, who fought against overwhelming odds to resist oppression and assert their rights in the face of colonial domination. It remains an important chapter in India’s history of anti-colonial struggles and the ongoing quest for justice and equality for indigenous communities.

That’s all today from the history of 30th June.

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