Explore the intriguing history of 16th June, featuring the origin of Pepsi-Cola, the Battle of Morar in India’s struggle for independence, the formation of IBM, and Sunita Williams’ record-breaking achievements in space exploration.
Welcome to the history of 16th June. The summers this year have been extremely hot, so let’s begin this episode with the story of a cold drink – Pepsi-Cola. Did you know it is this day in the year 1903 when Pepsi-Cola became an official trademark? The name was from the two ingredients which were used to make the drink – pepsin and kola nuts.
Now let’s delve more into the history of 16th June with my first story.
The Battle of Morar
The first War of Independence was fought in 1857 and the struggle continued till 1858, and it was this day i.e. 16th of June when the Battle of Morar was fought in the town of Morar, located in the present-day state of Madhya Pradesh, India. The town was strategically important as it served as a key British military post and was home to a large British garrison.
The Indian rebels, led by Tatya Tope, a prominent figure in the rebellion, launched an assault on the British forces stationed in Morar. The rebels aimed to capture the town and deal a significant blow to British control in the region.
The British, led by General Hugh Rose, were determined to defend Morar and repel the rebel attack. Fierce fighting ensued, with both sides displaying immense courage and determination. The battle lasted for several hours, characterized by intense gunfire, hand-to-hand combat, and strategic maneuvers.
Ultimately, despite the valiant efforts of the rebel forces, the British emerged victorious. Their superior weaponry, discipline, and reinforcements proved crucial in turning the tide of the battle. The defeat at Morar was a setback for the rebels, who faced further challenges in their struggle against British rule. Although the rebellion was ultimately suppressed, it laid the foundation for future movements that ultimately led to India’s independence in 1947.
With this note, I come to the second story from the history of 16th June.
The formation of IBM
16th of June, 1911, New York City.
On this day a momentous event took place that would shape the course of technological innovation for decades to come. The Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company (CTR) was founded, eventually evolving into the world-renowned International Business Machines (IBM) Corporation.
CTR was formed through a merger of three preexisting companies: the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. Each of these entities brought their expertise in different aspects of data processing and record-keeping, creating a synergy that would lay the foundation for the future success of IBM.
The Tabulating Machine Company, led by visionary inventor Herman Hollerith, pioneered the development of punch-card machines. These machines were capable of efficiently tabulating and sorting vast amounts of data, revolutionizing the field of data processing. The International Time Recording Company, headed by Alexander Dey, specialized in time clocks and employee record-keeping systems. Lastly, the Computing Scale Company, under the leadership of Edward Canaday and Orange Ozias, was known for manufacturing scales and commercial weighing equipment.
Together, these three companies merged to form CTR, which initially focused on providing innovative solutions for businesses and organizations seeking to streamline their record-keeping processes. However, as technological advancements continued to shape the industry, CTR expanded its offerings beyond tabulating and recording devices to encompass a broader range of computing technologies.
In 1924, the company underwent a significant transformation and changed its name to International Business Machines (IBM), reflecting its expanding global presence and its commitment to serving businesses worldwide. IBM continued to push the boundaries of technology, playing a pivotal role in the development of computers, mainframes, and other computing systems.
The story of technological development reminds me of another fascinating story, this time it is in space. My last story from the history of 16th June.
Sunita Williams – the longest-serving woman in space.
On this day, in the year 2007, Sunita Williams, an exceptional astronaut, achieved a remarkable feat by becoming the longest-serving woman in space.
Sunita Williams, of Indian-American heritage, has made immense contributions to the field of space exploration. Her journey to the stars began on 9 December 2006 when she embarked on her first mission as a flight engineer aboard the Space Shuttle Discovery. This mission, known as STS-116, was aimed at expanding the International Space Station’s capacity and ensuring its continued functionality.
However, it was during her subsequent mission that Sunita Williams broke records and left an indelible mark on the annals of space exploration. On 16 June 2007, she surpassed the previous record held by astronaut Shannon Lucid for the longest cumulative time spent in space by a woman. At that time, Sunita had spent 188 days, 4 hours, and 34 minutes in space, and she continued to add to this duration throughout her career.
Sunita Williams’s determination, skill, and adaptability enabled her to complete various critical missions. Her long-duration missions, including Expeditions 14 and 15, contributed significantly to scientific research, technological advancements, and our understanding of the challenges and possibilities of human space travel. Her endurance and perseverance served as an inspiration to countless individuals around the world, particularly women aspiring to excel in STEM fields and space exploration.
With this, I come to the end of today’s episode and come to the beginning of a fascinating weekend. Have fun.
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A devoted foodie with keen interest in wild life, music, cinema and travel Somashis has evolved over time . Being an enthusiastic reader he has recently started making occasional contribution to write-ups.